GENDER GLOSSARY

Gender: A set of qualities and behaviours expected from males and females by society. Gender roles are socially determined and can be affected by factors such as education or economics. Gender roles may vary widely within and between cultures, and often evolve over time.

Gender-Accommodating: When project design, implementation, and evaluation approaches adjust to or compensate for gender differences, norms, and inequities by being sensitive to the different roles and identities of men and women, but in ways which do not change the status quo.

Gender Analysis: Gender analysis is a process of using socio-economic methodologies to systematically identify and interpret the consequences of gender differences, disparities, and relationships.

Gender-Based Violence (GBV): Violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender. It constitutes a breach of the fundamental right to life, liberty, security, dignity, equality between women and men, non-discrimination and physical and mental integrity.

Gender Awareness: Gender awareness is the ability to identify problems arising from gender inequality and discrimination, even if these are not very evident on the surface or are "hidden" (i.e., not part of the general or commonly accepted explanation of what and where the problem lies). It is more analytical, more critical, and more "questioning" of gender disparities.

Gender Blind: Person, policy, or institution that does not recognize that gender is an essential determinant of the life choices available to us in society.

Gender Consideration: Using gender as factor of analysis (Example: while looking at deals or investment opportunities.)

Gender Discrimination: Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on the basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

Gender Diversity: A term that recognizes that many peoples' preferences and self-expression fall outside commonly understood gender norms.

Gender Dynamics/Gender Relations: The relationships and interactions between and among boys, girls, women, and men. Gender dynamics are informed by socio-cultural ideas about gender and the power relationships that define them. Depending upon how they are manifested, gender dynamics can reinforce or challenge existing norms.

Gender Gap/Gender Disparity: The term refers to any disparity between women and men’s condition or position in society. It is often used to refer to a difference in average earnings between women and men, e.g. “gender pay gap.” However, gender gaps can be found in many areas, such as the four pillars that the World Economic Forum uses to calculate its Gender Gap Index, namely: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment.

Gender Inequality Index: In 2010, the UNDP developed a new index for measuring gender disparity, called the Gender Inequality Index (GII). This index is a composite measure which shows the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in three dimensions: (1) reproductive health, (2) empowerment, and (3) the labor market. The index ranges from zero, which indicates that women and men fare equally, to one, which indicates that women fare as poorly as possible in all measured dimensions.

Gender Equality: Males and females have equal rights, freedoms, conditions, and opportunities for realizing their full potential and for contributing to and benefiting from economic, social, cultural, and political development. It means society values males and females equally for their similarities and differences and the diverse roles they play. It signifies the long-term outcomes that result from gender equity strategies and processes.

Gender Equity: The process of being treated fairly regardless of one’s gender. To ensure fairness, strategies and fairness must often be able to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women from being on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality.

Gender Lens Investing: The use of capital to simultaneously generate financial return and advance gender equality. Integrate gender analysis into financial analysis. The three key gender lenses are: Access to Capital, Workplace Equality, Products and Services that positively affect women and girls

Gender Mandate: Requiring gender factors for investments (Example: at least 1 woman on the board)

Gender-Negative: Activities in which gender inequalities (norms, roles, and stereotypes) are reinforced in the process of achieving desired development outcomes.

Gender-Neutral: Activities in which gender is not considered relevant to the development outcome but the process and the outcome do not worsen or improve gender norms, roles, and relations.

Gender Norms: A culturally-defined set of roles, responsibilities, rights, entitlements and obligations, associated with being a woman or man, as well as the power relations between and among genders in a society.

Gender Planning: A planning approach that recognizes the different roles that women and men play in society and the fact that they often have different needs.

Gender-Positive Activities: Activities where the focus remains on development outcomes, but changing gender norms, roles, and access to resources is seen as central to achieving positive development outcomes.

Gender Role Stereotyping: The portrayal, in media or books or conversations, of socially assigned gender roles as "normal" and "natural."

Gender-Sensitive: Activities which view gender as a means and aim to redress existing gender inequalities and gender norms, roles, and access to resources so that project goals can be reached.

Gender-Transformative Activities: Activities in which addressing gender issues is viewed as central to both positive development outcomes and transforming unequal gender relations to promote shared power, control of resources, decision making, and support for women’s empowerment.

Glass Ceiling: The term is a metaphor that has often been used to describe invisible barriers (“glass”) through which women can see elite positions, for example in government or the private sector, but cannot reach them.

Sex: Biological differences between males and females. Sex differences are related to males’ and females’ physiology and generally remain constant across cultures and over time.

Sex-Disaggregated Data: The collection of data according to physical attributes of the individual. Disaggregating data by sex (i.e., in categories of males and females) permits valid cross-country comparisons since sex categories are the same from one country to another.

Sexism: Prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s sex or gender. Sexist attitudes may stem from traditional stereotypes of gender roles and may include the belief that a person of one sex is naturally superior to a person of another.

Sexual Abuse: Actual or threatened physical intrusion of a sexual nature, whether by force or under unequal or coercive conditions.

Sexual Harassment: Unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

References:

https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadl089.pdf

http://wggp.illinois.edu/INGENAES%20Gender%20Glossary.pdf

https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/GenderEqualityPolicy_0.pdf

https://www.cambridgeassociates.com/research/gender-lens-investing-impact-opportunities-through-gender-equity/

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/why-gender-lens-investing-is-gaining-ground/

Click HERE for GLI Glossary (WomenEffect 2016)